This is the oldest Futhark - the European common heritage. We don't know for sure when or by who it is originated, but it might be among Germanic tribes in the beginning of our era.

The Elder Futhark has 24 runes. This "runic alphabet" got its name after the sound of what is traditionally held to be the six first runes in this "alphabet":
F - U - Þ - A - R - K

f u th a r k g w Frey's Aett
Fehu Uruz Thurisaz Ansuz Raidho Kenaz Gebo Wunjo

h n i j ë p R s Hagall's Aett
Hagalaz Nauthiz Isa Jera Eihwaz Perthro Algiz Sowilo

t b e m l ng d o Tyr's Aett
Tiwaz Berkano Ehwaz Mannaz Laguz Ingwaz Dagaz Othala

Click on the rune to read more about this single rune.


The rune's name: Fehu
The Meaning: Cattle, livestock, riches, landed property, movable property.
The sound: F
The Germanic name: Fe (Fehu)
The Norse name: Fé
The Anglo Saxon name: Feo, Feoh
The Icelandic name: Fé
The Norwegian name: Fe

Fehu runes
Other versions of the Fehu-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Uruz
The Meaning: Primitive ox, wild ox
The sound: U
The Germanic name: Uraz (Uruz)
The Norse name: Úr
The Anglo Saxon name: Ur
The Icelandic name: Úr
The Norwegian name: Ur

Uruz runes
Other versions of the Uruz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Thurisaz
The Meaning: Thorn, Giant, Troll
The sound: Þ, Th
The Germanic name: Thyth (Thurisaz)
The Norse name: Þurs
The Anglo Saxon name: (Thorn)
The Icelandic name: Þurs
The Norwegian name: Thurs

Thurisaz runes
Other versions of the Thurisaz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Ansuz
The Meaning: God, Asa god, divinity
The sound: A
The Germanic name: Aza (Ansuz)
The Norse name: Óss, Áss
The Anglo Saxon name: Aesc, (Os, Ac)
The Icelandic name: Óss, Áss
The Norwegian name: As

Other versions of the Ansuz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Raidho
The Meaning: Riding, Travel
The sound: R
The Germanic name: Reda (Raidho)
The Norse name: Reið, Reiðr
The Anglo Saxon name: Rad (Radh)
The Icelandic name: Reið
The Norwegian name: Reid, Reidr BR>
Raidho runes
Other versions of the Raidho-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Kenaz
The Meaning: Boil, carbuncle
The sound: K (C)
The Germanic name: Chozma (Kenaz)
The Norse name: Kaun
The Anglo Saxon name: Cen, Ken
The Icelandic name: Kaun
The Norwegian name: Kaun

Kenaz runes
Other versions of the Kenaz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Gebo
The Meaning: Gift
The sound: G
The Germanic name: Geuua (Gebo)
The Norse name: Gipt, Giöf
The Anglo Saxon name: Geofu (Gyfu)
The Icelandic name: Gjöf
The Norwegian name: Giof

Gebo runes
Other versions of the Gebo-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Wunjo
The Numerology number: 7
The Meaning: Good fortune, Delight
The sound: W
The Germanic name: Uuinne (Wunjo)
The Norse name: Vend
The Anglo Saxon name: Wynn
The Icelandic name: Vin
The Norwegian name: Wynn

Wunjo runes
Other versions of the Wunjo-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Hagalaz
The Meaning: Hail
The sound: H
The Germanic name: Haal (Hagalaz)
The Norse name: Hagall
The Anglo Saxon name: Hagall (Haegl)
The Icelandic name: Hagall
The Norwegian name: Hagall, Hagl

Hagalaz runes
Other versions of the Hagalaz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Nauthiz
The Meaning: Suffer want, crowd, bondage, slavery
The sound: N
The Germanic name: Noicz (Nauthiz)
The Norse name: Nauð, Nauðr
The Anglo Saxon name: Nied (Nyd)
The Icelandic name: Nauð
The Norwegian name: Naudr, Naud

Nauthiz runes
Other versions of the Nauthiz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Isa
The Meaning: Ice
The sound: I
The Germanic name: Icz (Isa)
The Norse name: Íss
The Anglo Saxon name: Is
The Icelandic name: Íss
The Norwegian name: Is

The Isa-rune has no other images.

The rune's name: Jera
The Meaning: Year, harvest, produce, crop, good year
The sound: J (Y)
The Germanic name: Gaar (Jera)
The Norse name: Ár
The Anglo Saxon name: ger (Jara)
The Icelandic name: Ár
The Norwegian name: Jara, Ar

Jera runes
Other versions of the Jera-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Eihwaz
The Meaning: Tree, Yew
The sound:
The Germanic name: Ezck (Eihwaz)
The Anglo Saxon name: Yr (Eoh)
The Norwegian name: (Eo)

The Eihwaz-rune has no other images.

The rune's name: Uncertain, but might be Perthro
The Meaning: Uncertain, but might be Stone, Rock
The sound: P
The Germanic name: Pertra (Perthro)
The Anglo Saxon name: Peordh (Pertra)
The Icelandic name: (Perð), (Plástur)
The Norwegian name: (Pertra)

Perthro runes
Other versions of the Perthro-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Algiz
The Meaning: Elk
The sound: Z (-R)
The Germanic name: Algis, Algiz or Elhaz
The Anglo Saxon name: Eolh
The Norwegian name: Elgr

The Algiz-rune, the Elk-rune, should only be used when the sound of "r" is the last rune in a word. When you see runic inscriptions written with Latin letters, the Algiz-rune is written as a capitalized "R".

Algiz runes
Other versions of the Algiz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Sowilo
The Meaning: Sun, the power of sun
The sound: S
The Germanic name: Sugil (Sowilo)
The Norse name: Sól
The Anglo Saxon name: Sigel
The Icelandic name: Sól
The Norwegian name: Sol
Old Danish: sulu
Old German: sil, sulhil, sigo

Sowilo runes
Other versions of the Sowilo-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Tiwaz
The Meaning: Warrior, The god Tyr
The sound: T
The Germanic name: Tys (Tiwaz)
The Norse name: Týr
The Anglo Saxon name: Tir, Tiw
The Icelandic name: Týr
The Norwegian name: Ty

Tiwaz runes
Other versions of the Tiwaz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Berkano
The Meaning: Birch, twigs of birch
The sound: B
The Germanic name: Bercna (Berkano)
The Norse name: Bjarkan
The Anglo Saxon name: Beroc
The Icelandic name: Bjarkan
The Norwegian name: Bjarkan

Berkano runes
Other versions of the Berkano-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Ehwaz
The Meaning: Horse
The sound:
The Norse name: Ehol, Ior
The Germanic name: Eys (Ehwaz)
The Anglo Saxon name: Eoh
The Icelandic name: Eykur
The Norwegian name: Eh, Eol

Ehwaz runes
Other versions of the Ehwaz-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Mannaz
The Meaning: Man, husband, human being
The sound: M
The Germanic name: Manna (Mannaz)
The Norse name: Maðr
The Anglo Saxon name: Mann
The Icelandic name: Maður
The Norwegian name: Madr

The Mannaz-rune has no other images.

The rune's name: Laguz
The Meaning: Water
The sound: L
The Germanic name: Laaz (Laguz)
The Norse name: Lögr
The Anglo Saxon name: Lagu
The Icelandic name: Lögur
The Norwegian name: Laukr

The Laguz-rune has no other images.

The rune's name: Ingwaz
The Meaning: Phallus, name of a God
The sound: NG
The Norse name: Ing, Ingvarr
The Germanic name: Enguz (Ingwaz)
The Anglo Saxon name: Ing
The Icelandic name: Ing
The Norwegian name: Ing

Ing, or Yngvi
(an "other name of Frey") is a god of fertility and conquering. Ironically, in the Norse tradition it was often the women who conducted rites involving sexuality. Ing is related to the old Nerthus-cult which dealt with the mystery of fecundity and birth.

Ingwaz runes
Other versions of this rune through the times.

The rune's name: Othala
The Meaning: Allodium, Land-holding, Inheritance
The sound: O
The Germanic name: Utal (Othala)
The Norse name: Oðal
The Anglo Saxon name: Otael (Ethel)
The Icelandic name: Óðal
The Norwegian name: Odal

Othala runes
Other versions of the Othala-rune through the times.

The rune's name: Dagaz
The Meaning: Day
The sound: D
The Germanic name: Daaz (Dagaz)
The Norse name: Dagr
The Anglo Saxon name: Daeg
The Icslandic name: Dagur
The Norwegian name: Dagr

Dagaz runes
Other versions of the Dagaz-rune through the times.

Direct links to the other pages:
|.Index.| |.Norwegian.runes.| |.Swedish.runes.| |.Danish.runes.| |.Greenlandic.runes.| |.Germanic.runes.| |.Anglo-Saxon.runes.| |.Elder.Futhark.| |.Odin's.Galder.Songs.| |.Sigdrifumal.| |.Secret.runes.| |.History.of.the.runes.| |.Norwegian.runic.inscriptions.| |.Symbols.| || |.The.Thing.| |.Raids.| || |.Art.| || |.Download-links.|

Norwegian Text

Created by Arild Hauge © Denmark, Aarhus 2002

Last updated 21.10.2002